萃取靈肉之痛,在畫框裡外揮灑生命的色彩:《FRIDA KAHLO: MAKING HER SELF UP》

Frida Kahlo with Olmec figurine, 1939. Photograph Nickolas Muray. © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

在充滿傳奇性的墨西哥知名畫家 Frida Kahlo 逝世多年後,她的私人收藏首次在墨西哥以外的地方展出。今年夏天,倫敦 V&A Museum 以《Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up》展覽,展出超過 200 多件 Frida Kahlo 的生命、創作相關物件,包含衣飾、化妝品、攝影肖像與畫作,帶領人們走入她精彩豐富的藝術世界。

‘Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up’, 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

I was born a bitch. I was born a painter.

'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

I was born a bitch. I was born a painter.

Frida Kahlo 的生命歷程本就是一部傳奇,關於她的出生有著許多傳說與臆測。傳言她曾自稱生於 1910 年 7 月 7 日(後人考證實為出生於 1907 年),那年便是上世紀墨西哥革命的濫觴;彷彿暗示著 Frida 與現代的墨西哥,一同自革命熱潮裡嫣然誕生綻放。

Frida Kahlo, by Leo Matiz, 1943, Coyoacán, Mexico. Private Collection. © Alejandra Matiz. Leo Matiz Foundation. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Frida Kahlo, by Leo Matiz, 1943, Coyoacán, Mexico. Private Collection. © Alejandra Matiz. Leo Matiz Foundation. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

自 1954 年 Frida Kahlo 逝世後,其所擁有的個人物品便隨其丈夫、墨西哥壁畫家 Diego Rivera 的遺願,封存在 Frida Kahlo 出生、生活與過世的居所 La Casa Azul(英譯:The Blue House)。這座「藍色之屋」在 Diego Rivera 於 1957 年逝世後,變成了 Museo Frida Kahlo 博物館;衣櫥、櫃子裡無數的物件,向大眾靜靜訴說著這位藝術家的生前故事。然而,這座藍色之屋裡卻隱藏著一個秘密——其中一間未曾打開過的浴室,Diego Rivera 生前將所有他視為重要的物件鎖於其中——書信、書籍、照片,以及許多 Frida 生前穿戴蒐藏的衣物布料——直至 2004 年才被館方開啟。經過幾年的文物整理,2007 年 Museo Frida Kahlo 才將這完整的蒐藏公諸於世。

‘Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up’, 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

本次 V&A 的展覽便將 Museo Frida Kahlo 的物件首次在墨西哥外展出。若 Frida 的自畫像作品,是她向觀眾親密揭示部分的自我,那這次的展覽則提供觀眾對 Frida 的認識一個更加完整的輪廓。畫筆是她主要的創作工具,然而鮮少為人所知的是,她對藝術的啟蒙實際來自於攝影。成長於混血家庭,Frida 的父親 Guillermo Kahlo 是自德國移民至墨西哥的攝影師,耳濡目染下,讓她在非常年幼時便接觸認識了攝影。

1900 年早期,Frida 父親受當時墨西哥獨裁總統 Porfirio Díaz 的命令,以鏡頭記錄下墨西哥殖民建築的設施與教堂;這些影像資料不僅是這國度的歷史記憶,更推動墨西哥現代主義的興起,尤其在後來 1910 年至 1920 年延燒的墨西哥革命裡,扮演著極為重要的角色。當時仍是女孩的 Frida,不僅是父親生活裡鏡頭最愛的拍攝對象,也在父親的暗房裡學習著攝影的知識。

左:Frida 父親 Guillermo Kahlo 拍下的 The Kahlo Calderón 家族照 (Frida 穿著男士西裝站在左側)。Guillermo Kahlo, 7 February 1926, Coyoacán, Mexico. © The Vicente Wolf Collection. 右:Frida 父親 Guillermo Kahlo 拍下的Frida。Guillermo Kahlo, about 1926, Coyoacán, Mexico. © Frida Kahlo & Diego Rivera Archives. Bank of Mexico, Fiduciary in the Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Museum Trust.
Frida 父親 Guillermo Kahlo 拍下的Frida。Guillermo Kahlo, about 1926, Coyoacán, Mexico. © Frida Kahlo & Diego Rivera Archives. Bank of Mexico, Fiduciary in the Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Museum Trust. ‘Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up’, 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

我有我父親的雙眼,以及我母親的身體。

少女時期的 Frida 很快便意識到,在相機鏡頭前「自我」展現的意義。在父親拍攝的一張家族照中,18 歲的 Frida 刻意穿上三件式男性西裝,極為英氣的站姿與畫面中其他女性形成對比;而在她早期的其餘畫作與照片裡,Frida 的裝束又呈現極為女性的氣質——在當時的社會背景下,性別模糊是件大膽又少見的事。「服裝」以及其在攝影裡所代表的意義,成了 Frida 對構築自我身份極為重要的一環;而這對「展現」的強烈認知與啟蒙,也影響著她後來的畫作。

Frida 父親 Guillermo Kahlo 拍下的 The Kahlo Calderón 家族照 (Frida 穿著男士西裝站在左側)。Guillermo Kahlo, 7 February 1926, Coyoacán, Mexico. © The Vicente Wolf Collection. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.

‘Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up’, 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

大量的墨西哥、美洲印第安人的文化傳統,充滿明亮的鮮豔色彩和大膽筆觸,是 Frida 畫作裡最鮮明的特質。她的創作帶著超現實主義的色彩,以幽微、象徵性、但卻強而有力的隱喻,訴說了身為女性的身體經驗和感受,亦同時呈現後殖民、性別、階級、種族等重要議題。

Self-portrait on the Border between Mexico and the United States of America, Frida Kahlo, 1932 © Modern Art International Foundation (Courtesy María and Manuel Reyero). 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
The Love Embrace of the Universe, the Earth (Mexico), Me, Diego, and Señor Xolotl, Frida Kahlo, 1949 © The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection of 20th Century Mexican Art and The Vergel Collection. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

Self-portrait on the Border between Mexico and the United States of America, Frida Kahlo, 1932 © Modern Art International Foundation (Courtesy María and Manuel Reyero). ‘Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up’, 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

因為年輕時的一場嚴重車禍,Frida 終其一生進出醫院多次,經歷超過 30 次的手術。這場車禍造成她行動不便,在她後半的人生裡將她與床綁住,卻也成為她對自畫像的催化劑;藉著攝影師好友替她拍的照片,以及設置於床前的鏡面,她在床上畫下了多幅自畫像。這些作品裡,她以畫筆替自己換上不同的裝束,替面容戴上堅忍的情緒;深沈濃密連結成一線的眉毛,緊閉的雙唇與極具特色的鬍鬚……她將自身肉身的苦痛、疾病以及生命的磨耗,轉化成創作能量。對生命的不屈不撓、對創作的熱烈態度,她用畫作給自己開闢了一條路,替自己也替女性發聲。

左:Self-portrait, Frida Kahlo, 1941 © The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection of 20th Century Mexican Art and The Vergel Collection. 右:Self-Portrait, Frida Kahlo, 1948 © Private Collection. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Self-portrait, Frida Kahlo, 1941 © The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection of 20th Century Mexican Art and The Vergel Collection. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Self-Portrait, Frida Kahlo, 1948 © Private Collection. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

Frida Kahlo with Olmec figurine, 1939. Photograph Nickolas Muray. © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. ‘Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up’, 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

I knew that the battlefield of suffering was reflected in my eyes. Ever since then, I started looking straight into the lens, without winking, without smiling, determined to prove I would be a good warrior until the end.

I knew that the battlefield of suffering was reflected in my eyes. Ever since then, I started looking straight into the lens, without winking, without smiling, determined to prove I would be a good warrior until the end.

Frida Kahlo with Olmec figurine, 1939. Photograph Nickolas Muray. © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

創作能量也不僅止於在畫布上揮灑,攝影賦予 Frida 向外展現自我的啟蒙,讓她對服飾、協助支撐她身體苦痛的義肢與馬甲都成了建構她自身的靈感。衣櫥裡大量的傳統墨西哥服裝、rebozo(流蘇披肩)、huipiles(刺繡短上衣)、enaguas(裙子)、holanes(荷葉裝飾),再到裝飾的義肢與繪上宗教、社會主義符號的馬甲……獨樹一幟的穿衣風格,讓她在一張張攝影師好友如 Nickolas Muray、Gisèle Freund 鏡頭前的身影,成了當時世界各地知名攝影師最渴望拍攝的對象。對於美感的掌握與獨具慧眼的敏銳度,伴隨其強烈鮮明的作風,這些影像在後世學者的眼中並非只被視為攝影師的個人作品,而是身為被拍攝對象的她與攝影師共同於景框構圖的創作。

Frida in a magenta rebozo, by Nickolas Muray, 1938, Coyoacán, Mexico © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Frida Kahlo on a bench, carbon print, 1938, photo by Nickolas Muray © The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection of 20th Century Mexican Art and The Verge,Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Frida Kahlo in blue satin blouse, 1939. Photograph Nickolas Muray © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Frida in a magenta rebozo, by Nickolas Muray, 1938, Coyoacán, Mexico © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Frida Kahlo on a bench, carbon print, 1938, photo by Nickolas Muray © The Jacques and Natasha Gelman Collection of 20th Century Mexican Art and The Verge,Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Frida Kahlo in blue satin blouse, 1939. Photograph Nickolas Muray © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Guatemalan cotton coat worn with Mazatec huipil and plain floor-length skirt. Museo Frida Kahlo © Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Archives, Banco de México, Fiduciary of the Trust of the Diego Riviera and Frida Kahlo Museums. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Prosthetic leg with leather boot. Appliquéd silk with embroidered Chinese motifs. Photograph Javier Hinojosa. Museo Frida Kahlo. © Diego Riviera and Frida Kahlo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Cotton huipil with machine-embroidered chain stitch; printed cotton skirt with embroidery and holán (ruffle) Museo Frida Kahlo. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

Frida 替自己裝扮,有意識地裝飾並穿上它們,宛如她的第二層肌膚。彷彿透過這個賦權儀式,重新找回自己的身體,更深度認識自我。這同時也是個政治表述,向世界展現著她墨西哥混血血統身份,在文化上的定位與傳承。彷彿己身就是一場藝術的嘉年華,為生命慶賀。

'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland © Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Guatemalan cotton coat worn with Mazatec huipil and plain floor-length skirt. Museo Frida Kahlo © Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo Archives, Banco de México, Fiduciary of the Trust of the Diego Riviera and Frida Kahlo Museums. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Prosthetic leg with leather boot. Appliquéd silk with embroidered Chinese motifs. Photograph Javier Hinojosa. Museo Frida Kahlo. © Diego Riviera and Frida Kahlo Archives. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.
Cotton huipil with machine-embroidered chain stitch; printed cotton skirt with embroidery and holán (ruffle) Museo Frida Kahlo. 'Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up', 16 June – 14 November 2018. Sponsored by Grosvenor Britain & Ireland.

如同一個非常私密個人的旅程,《Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up》揭開 Frida 日常生活的神秘面紗,從衣著、首飾、物件與畫作,不僅帶領觀眾一窺這位傳奇創作者,如何在生命苦痛裡建立起屬於她自己的獨特認同,也揭示著 Frida 如何參與墨西哥 1920 至 1930年間蓬勃發展的「墨西哥文藝復興」(Mexican Renaissance)。「當我擁有能夠飛翔的翅膀,誰還會需要腳呢?」將西方藝術與墨西哥傳統文化並置,Frida 揉合出屬於那個亮麗、充滿生氣的墨西哥特有的意象,以其自身啟發後世無數創作人靈感的精彩創作。

《Frida Kahlo: Making Her Self Up》
Victoria & Albert Museum/ Cromwell Road, London SW7 2RL
展覽至 2018 年 11 月 4  日

All Images Courtesy of Victoria & Albert Museum.

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